Abstract. Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances.
What is substance abuse in pregnancy?
Use of alcohol, illicit drugs and other psychoactive substances during pregnancy can lead to multiple health and social problems for both mother and child, including miscarriage, stillbirth, low birthweight, prematurity, physical malformations and neurological damage.
What is the meaning of substance abuse?
Substance abuse can simply be defined as a pattern of harmful use of any substance for mood-altering purposes. “Substances” can include alcohol and other drugs (illegal or not) as well as some substances that are not drugs at all.
What do you call substances that can cause harm during a woman’s pregnancy?
Certain drugs such as alcohol, some illegal drugs, and some prescription and over-the-counter medications are known to cause birth defects if taken during pregnancy. Drugs that can cause birth defects are called ‘teratogens’. A teratogen is a substance that interferes with the normal development of a fetus.
What are the effects of drugs in pregnancy?
Illegal drugs and pregnancy
Substances with some known effects include: amphetamines – increased risk of low birth weight, birth defects, premature birth. cannabis – increased risk of growth retardation, sleep problems, behavioural problems.
How long do drugs stay in an unborn baby’s system?
Concentrations of some drug analytes are lower in cord tissue than in meconium, but can still be detected with the appropriate methodology. Meconium is the traditional newborn drug testing specimen and usually passes within 48 hours of birth.
Is substance abuse a disorder?
Drug addiction, also called substance use disorder, is a disease that affects a person’s brain and behavior and leads to an inability to control the use of a legal or illegal drug or medication. Substances such as alcohol, marijuana and nicotine also are considered drugs.
What are the challenges of treating a patient with a substance abuse issue?
Other issues reducing the quality of substance abuse treatment include discrimination and stigma, poor coordination of substance abuse services with mental health and medical care, inconsistent licensing requirements, and an inadequately trained workforce [2–4].
What are 4 things that drugs cause an unborn fetus?
Babies born to moms who use street drugs during pregnancy can have these complications:
- Premature birth. …
- Low birthweight. …
- Smaller-than-normal head size (called reduced head circumference)
- Heart defects.
- Birth defects. …
- Infections, including hepatitis C, HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) and Zika.
What drugs are bad for pregnancy?
What medicines should you avoid during pregnancy?
- Bismuth subsalicylate (such as Pepto-Bismol).
- Phenylephrine or pseudoephedrine, which are decongestants. …
- Cough and cold medicines that contain guaifenesin. …
- Pain medicines like aspirin and ibuprofen (such as Advil and Motrin) and naproxen (such as Aleve).
What does the baby look like 1 month after conception?
A primitive face takes form with large dark circles for eyes. The mouth, lower jaw, and throat are developing. Blood cells are taking shape, and circulation will begin. By the end of the first month of pregnancy, your baby is around 6-7mm (1/4 inch) long – about the size of a grain of rice!
How does being upset affect pregnancy?
High levels of stress that continue for a long time may cause health problems, like high blood pressure and heart disease. During pregnancy, stress can increase the chances of having a premature baby (born before 37 weeks of pregnancy) or a low-birthweight baby (weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces).
How do drugs cross the placenta?
Nutrient and drug transfer across the placenta are by passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, and pinocytosis. Placental drug transfer is dependent on the physical properties of the placental membrane and on the pharmacological properties of the drug.
How does over the counter drugs affect pregnancy?
Ingestion of OTC preparations during pregnancy results in placental transfer and accumulation of these drugs in the fetus. As the fetus lacks the ability to handle pharmaceutical agents, since renal function, metabolic pathways, etc.
Do doctors do drug tests during pregnancy?
“ACOG recommends universal drug screening during prenatal care using a validated screening tool, such as the widely used 4P’sPlus.” The tool uses five questions to determine risk for substance abuse during pregnancy. A urine drug test is recommended, with patient consent, if the screen points to drug abuse.