Depression, in psychology, a mood or emotional state that is marked by feelings of low self-worth or guilt and a reduced ability to enjoy life.
What is a simple definition of depression?
Depression (major depressive disorder) is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. Fortunately, it is also treatable. Depression causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities you once enjoyed.
How does psychoanalysis explain depression?
Later, Freud modified his theory stating that the tendency to internalize loss objects is normal, and that depression is simply due to an excessively severe super-ego. Thus, the depressive phase occurs when the individual’s super-ego or conscience is dominant.
How would a biological psychologist explain depression?
Depression has been linked to problems or imbalances in the brain, specifically with the neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. It is very difficult to actually measure the level of neurotransmitters in a person’s brain and their activity.
How would a behavioral psychologist explain depression?
Rather, a behavioral psychologist uses principles of learning theory to explain human behavior. According to behavioral theory, dysfunctional or unhelpful behavior such as depression is learned. Because depression is learned, behavioral psychologists suggest that it can also be unlearned.
What are the 3 types of depression?
Types of Depression
- Major Depression.
- Persistent Depressive Disorder.
- Bipolar Disorder.
- Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
- Psychotic Depression.
- Peripartum (Postpartum) Depression.
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
- ‘Situational’ Depression.
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What is the biggest cause of depression?
There’s no single cause of depression. It can occur for a variety of reasons and it has many different triggers. For some people, an upsetting or stressful life event, such as bereavement, divorce, illness, redundancy and job or money worries, can be the cause. Different causes can often combine to trigger depression.
What is the biological reason for depression?
The predisposition to developing depression can be inherited. Other biological causes for depression can include physical illness, the process of ageing and gender. Stress can trigger depression but understanding its particular meaning to the person is important.
What is hopelessness theory of depression?
The hopelessness theory of depression states that depressive symptoms are most likely to occur when a vulnerable person experiences negative environmental circumstances (Schneider, Gruman, & Coutts, 2012).
Can depression be a learned behavior?
Dysfunctional or unhelpful behavior such as depression is learned. Because depression is learned, behavioral psychologists suggest that it can also be unlearned. In the mid-1970s, Peter Lewinsohn argued that depression is caused by a combination of stressors in a person’s environment and a lack of personal skills.
How does depression anxiety affect synapses?
Basic and clinical studies demonstrate that depression is associated with reduced size of brain regions that regulate mood and cognition, including the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, and decreased neuronal synapses in these areas.
Does depression change your brain chemistry?
Studies have uncovered how differences in the brain’s structure and chemicals may contribute to depression, but also ways that having depression changes your brain: Cortisol and memory. Part of the brain called the hippocampus releases the hormone cortisol when you’re stressed, which includes episodes of depression.
Can u inherit depression?
Scientists believe that as many as 40 percent of those with depression can trace it to a genetic link. Environmental and other factors make up the other 60 percent. Research has also shown that people with parents or siblings who have depression are up to three times more likely to have the condition.
What are the behavioral components of depression?
Behavioral models suggest that depression may result from deficits in response-contingent positive reinforcement andinadequate social skills or reliance upon escape and avoidance behaviors, such that avoidance behaviors in response to negative life events and corresponding negative emotions may lead to worsened …
Is depression abnormal behavior?
A good example of an abnormal behavior assessed by a multi-criteria approach is depression: it is commonly seen as a deviation from ideal mental stability, it often stops the individual from ‘functioning’ a normal life, and, though it is a relatively common mental disorder, it is still statistically infrequent.
How do behaviorists treat mental disorders?
Commonly used applications by a behaviorist include: positive reinforcement , negative reinforcement, punishment, token economy , self management , extinction , shaping , contracts ,time out, and systematic desensitization .