Ephedrine is obtained from the plant Ephedra sinica and other members of the genus Ephedra. Raw materials for the manufacture of ephedrine and traditional Chinese medicines are produced in China on a large scale.
What plant makes ephedrine?
Ephedrine is one of the most commonly used noncatecholamine sympathomimetic drugs in the perioperative period. Ephedrine is a natural product of the ephedra plant (Ephedra sinica), and is a mixed-acting, noncatecholamine sympathomimetic with both direct and indirect stimulating effects on α- and β-adrenergic receptors.
How is ephedrine made synthetically?
Natural ephedrine is prepared by extraction from Ephedra plants. This process is typically employed for ephedrine manufactured in China. Semi-synthetic ephedrine is prepared by fermentation of sugar followed by amination, a process known to be used in India. Fully chemically synthesized ephedrine is produced elsewhere.
Which medicine is obtained from ephedra?
The alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are the active constituents of Ephedra. Pseudoephedrine is used in over-the-counter decongestants. Derivatives of ephedrine are used to treat low blood pressure, but alternatives with reduced cardiovascular risk have replaced it for treating asthma.
What class of drug is ephedrine?
Ephedrine may be used alone or with other medications. Ephedrine belongs to a class of drugs called Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists.
What is another name for ephedrine?
Ephedrine is available under the following different brand names: Akovaz, and Corphedra.
Where is ephedrine found?
Twelve species of Ephedra are found in North America, ranging from the southwestern United States to central Mexico. Ephedra sinica, a Chinese species of ephedra (ma huang), contains the alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine.
Why was Bronkaid recalled 2020?
This recall was initiated after identifying that certain information was unintentionally excluded from the product carton label. Bronkaid caplets consist of ephedrine sulfate, a bronchodilator, and guaifenesin, an expectorant. … For more information call (800) 986-0369 or visit www.bronkaid.com.
What are the effects of ephedrine?
What Are Side Effects of Ephedrine?
- spinning sensation (vertigo),
- loss of appetite,
- trouble sleeping (insomnia),
10 авг. 2020 г.
What is the structure of ephedrine?
Is it legal to grow ephedra?
ANSWER: Ephedra sinica, the herb also known as Ma Huang, is the one that was outlawed by the FDA and can no longer be legally sold as a dietary supplement. The major reason is the potential danger from the ephedra alkaloids, which are stimulant compounds that can represent an unreasonable risk of illness or injury.
What are the long term effects of ephedrine?
Ephedra use is linked to high blood pressure, heart attacks, muscle disorders, seizures, strokes, irregular heartbeat, loss of consciousness, and death. These side effects might be more likely if ephedra is used in high doses or long-term.
What is the difference between ephedra and ephedrine?
The March 26,2003, issue of JAMA includes an article about the efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine. Ephedrine is a chemical contained in the ephedra herb. Ephedrine has medical uses, mostly in operating rooms and intensive care units.
When was ephedrine banned?
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids (stimulant compounds found in Ephedra sinica and some other plants) in the United States in 2004.
What is the difference between ephedrine and phenylephrine?
Ephedrine increases heart rate and contractility of the heart muscle and is likely to increase oxygen demand. Phenylephrine reduces heart rate while maintaining blood pressure which may result in a more favorable oxygen supply demand ratio.