Ma-huang is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb derived from Ephedra sinica Stapf and other Ephedra species, used to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. It contains 0.5–2.5% by weight of total alkaloids, of which ephedrine accounts for 30 to 90%.
How much ephedrine is in Ephedra Sinica?
sinica, including one that was 98% ephedrine, one that had 10% norpseudoephedrine, and one that contained an average of 13% methylephedrine. We conclude that product inconsistency is common among some commercially available dietary supplements that contain ephedra alkaloids and caffeine.
Is Ma Huang tea legal?
ANSWER: Ephedra sinica, the herb also known as Ma Huang, is the one that was outlawed by the FDA and can no longer be legally sold as a dietary supplement. The major reason is the potential danger from the ephedra alkaloids, which are stimulant compounds that can represent an unreasonable risk of illness or injury.
Does Mormon tea contain ephedrine?
The dried branches are boiled in water to make the tea. People use it as a beverage and as a medicine. Be careful not to confuse Mormon tea (Ephedra nevadensis) with ephedra (Ephedra sinica and other ephedra species). Unlike these other plants, Mormon tea does not contain ephedrine, an unsafe stimulant.
What’s the difference between ephedra and ephedrine?
The March 26,2003, issue of JAMA includes an article about the efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine. Ephedrine is a chemical contained in the ephedra herb. Ephedrine has medical uses, mostly in operating rooms and intensive care units.
What are the side effects of ephedrine?
Common side effects of Ephedrine usually occur with larger doses and include:
- spinning sensation (vertigo),
- loss of appetite,
- trouble sleeping (insomnia),
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How do I know if I have ephedra Nevadensis?
USDA Native Status: L48 (N)
shrub with yellowish-gray, erect-spreading branches. Small, paired leaves split and fall off early leaving a leafless, broom-like shrub. Tiny, individual, yellow to light-brown flowers cluster together to form a cone-like inflorescence.
Is Ma Huang legal in USA?
While the ephedra herb and products like ma huang tea are available for purchase, dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids are not. Due to safety concerns, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned products containing ephedrine in 2004 ( 1 , 19).
Where is ephedra still legal?
The sale of ephedra alkaloid-containing dietary supplements remains illegal in the United States. Sales of products containing ephedra extract not containing ephedrine remain legal.
What does ephedra look like?
Physical description. Members of the genus Ephedra are low, straggling, or climbing desert shrubs. The leaves, reduced to scales about one centimetre long, are opposite or whorled about the nodes of green branchlets. The bulk of photosynthesis occurs in the green stems.
How can you tell a Mormon tea?
Mormon-tea is a 3 ft. shrub with numerous yellowish-green branches. Paired, bristle-tipped leaves split and fall off early leaving a leafless, broom-like shrub. Cone-like flowers are light-yellow.
What plant has ephedrine in it?
Other plant sources that contain such ephedrine alkaloids include Sida cordifolia L. and Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino. Common names that have been used for the various plants that contain ephedrine alkaloids include sea grape, yellow horse, joint fir, popotillo, and country mallow.
When was ephedrine banned?
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids (stimulant compounds found in Ephedra sinica and some other plants) in the United States in 2004.
What drug contains ephedrine?
Ephedrine (EPH), pseudoephedrine (PEPH), phenylpropanolamine (PPA), and methylephedrine (MEPH) are ephedrine alkaloids commonly found in cold medications and are banned by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
Is ephedrine safe in small doses?
“No dosage of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids is safe and the sale of these products in the United States is illegal and subject to enforcement action.”
How does ephedra affect the body?
Ephedra can cause a quickened heartbeat and elevated blood pressure. Side effects include heart palpitations, nausea, and vomiting. More than 800 dangerous reactions have been reported with use of the herb. These include heart attacks, strokes, seizures, and sudden deaths.