What are the extrapyramidal side effects of antipsychotic drugs?

Antipsychotic medications commonly produce extrapyramidal symptoms as side effects. The extrapyramidal symptoms include acute dyskinesias and dystonic reactions, tardive dyskinesia, Parkinsonism, akinesia, akathisia, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

What are the extrapyramidal side effects?

Extrapyramidal side effects: Physical symptoms, including tremor, slurred speech, akathesia, dystonia, anxiety, distress, paranoia, and bradyphrenia, that are primarily associated with improper dosing of or unusual reactions to neuroleptic (antipsychotic) medications.

What are the side effects of antipsychotic drugs?

What are the possible side effects of antipsychotics?

  • Drowsiness.
  • Dizziness.
  • Restlessness.
  • Weight gain (the risk is higher with some atypical antipsychotic medicines)
  • Dry mouth.
  • Constipation.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.

What are the most common extrapyramidal effects for those individuals taking first generation antipsychotic drugs?

First-generation antipsychotics have a high rate of extrapyramidal side effects, including rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonias, tremor, and akathisia. Tardive dyskinesia (TD)—that is, involuntary movements in the face and extremities—is another adverse effect that can occur with first-generation antipsychotics.

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What antipsychotic causes the most EPS?

The incidence of EPS differs among the SGAs, with risperidone associated with the most and clozapine and quetiapine with the fewest EPS.

How can I prevent extrapyramidal side effects?

Benzodiazepines are sometimes prescribed to help counteract extrapyramidal side effects, as are anti-parkinsonism drugs called anticholinergics. Antipsychotics block dopamine, which is what causes the extrapyramidal side effects in the first place.

How do you stop extrapyramidal side effects?

Treatment involves stopping the drug, lowering the dose, or switching to another drug. Clozapine, for example, can help relieve tardive dyskinesia symptoms. Deep brain stimulation has also shown promise as a treatment.

What is the strongest antipsychotic drug?

Clozapine, which has the strongest antipsychotic effect, can cause neutropenia.

Do antipsychotics change the brain permanently?

Meyer-Lindberg himself published a study last year showing that antipsychotics cause quickly reversible changes in brain volume that do not reflect permanent loss of neurons (see “Antipsychotic deflates the brain”).

Do antipsychotics do more harm than good?

Lately, however, some studies have suggested that antipsychotics may do more harm than good, especially in the long-term. Some researchers have raised concerns over the toxic effects of these medications, suggesting that patients may only benefit from the medication in the short-term.

Do antipsychotics affect intelligence?

The association between lifetime cumulative antipsychotic dose-years and global cognitive functioning. Higher lifetime cumulative dose-years of any antipsychotics were significantly associated with poorer cognitive composite score (p<0.001), when adjusted for gender and age of illness onset (p=0.005) (Table 4).

What is the least sedating antipsychotic?

For example, the high-potency, low-dose atypical antipsychotic risperidone is less sedating than the lower-potency, high-dose atypical antipsychotics quetiapine and clozapine.

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What is the best medication for schizophrenia?

Second-generation antipsychotics

  • Clozapine (Clozaril, Versacloz)
  • Iloperidone (Fanapt)
  • Lurasidone (Latuda)
  • Olanzapine (Zyprexa)
  • Paliperidone (Invega)
  • Quetiapine (Seroquel)
  • Risperidone (Risperdal)
  • Ziprasidone (Geodon)

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What is the weakest antipsychotic?

Of the atypical antipsychotics, risperidone is the weakest in terms of atypicality criteria.

Are EPS symptoms reversible?

However, it soon became clear that EPS can be mistaken for or worsen psychotic symptoms, are sometimes irreversible or lethal, necessitate additional burdensome side effects from antiparkinsonian agents, can be disfiguring and stigmatizing, and have been shown to influence compliance, relapse and rehospitalization.

Which antipsychotic is least likely to cause tardive dyskinesia?

Risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and clozapine have a low risk of tardive dyskinesia. Newer agents, such as lurasidone, asenapine, iloperidone, and aripiprazole, might have a lower risk of tardive dyskinesia, possibly because of differences in dopamine blockage between these agents and FGAs.

Psychopharmacy